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开发接口

这部分文档包含了 Requests 所有的接口。对于 Requests 依赖的外部库部分,我们在这里介绍最重要的部分,并提供了规范文档的链接。

主要接口

Requests 所有的功能都可以通过以下 7 个方法访问。它们全部都会返回一个 Response 对象的实例。

requests.request(method, url, **kwargs)

Constructs and sends a Request.

参数:
  • method -- method for the new Request object.
  • url -- URL for the new Request object.
  • params -- (optional) Dictionary or bytes to be sent in the query string for the Request.
  • data -- (optional) Dictionary or list of tuples [(key, value)] (will be form-encoded), bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • json -- (optional) json data to send in the body of the Request.
  • headers -- (optional) Dictionary of HTTP Headers to send with the Request.
  • cookies -- (optional) Dict or CookieJar object to send with the Request.
  • files -- (optional) Dictionary of 'name': file-like-objects (or {'name': file-tuple}) for multipart encoding upload. file-tuple can be a 2-tuple ('filename', fileobj), 3-tuple ('filename', fileobj, 'content_type') or a 4-tuple ('filename', fileobj, 'content_type', custom_headers), where 'content-type' is a string defining the content type of the given file and custom_headers a dict-like object containing additional headers to add for the file.
  • auth -- (optional) Auth tuple to enable Basic/Digest/Custom HTTP Auth.
  • timeout (float or tuple) -- (optional) How many seconds to wait for the server to send data before giving up, as a float, or a (connect timeout, read timeout) tuple.
  • allow_redirects (bool) -- (optional) Boolean. Enable/disable GET/OPTIONS/POST/PUT/PATCH/DELETE/HEAD redirection. Defaults to True.
  • proxies -- (optional) Dictionary mapping protocol to the URL of the proxy.
  • verify -- (optional) Either a boolean, in which case it controls whether we verify the server's TLS certificate, or a string, in which case it must be a path to a CA bundle to use. Defaults to True.
  • stream -- (optional) if False, the response content will be immediately downloaded.
  • cert -- (optional) if String, path to ssl client cert file (.pem). If Tuple, ('cert', 'key') pair.
返回:

Response object

返回类型:

requests.Response

Usage:

>>> import requests
>>> req = requests.request('GET', 'http://httpbin.org/get')
<Response [200]>
requests.head(url, **kwargs)

Sends a HEAD request.

参数:
  • url -- URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs -- Optional arguments that request takes.
返回:

Response object

返回类型:

requests.Response

requests.get(url, params=None, **kwargs)

Sends a GET request.

参数:
  • url -- URL for the new Request object.
  • params -- (optional) Dictionary or bytes to be sent in the query string for the Request.
  • **kwargs -- Optional arguments that request takes.
返回:

Response object

返回类型:

requests.Response

requests.post(url, data=None, json=None, **kwargs)

Sends a POST request.

参数:
  • url -- URL for the new Request object.
  • data -- (optional) Dictionary (will be form-encoded), bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • json -- (optional) json data to send in the body of the Request.
  • **kwargs -- Optional arguments that request takes.
返回:

Response object

返回类型:

requests.Response

requests.put(url, data=None, **kwargs)

Sends a PUT request.

参数:
  • url -- URL for the new Request object.
  • data -- (optional) Dictionary (will be form-encoded), bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • json -- (optional) json data to send in the body of the Request.
  • **kwargs -- Optional arguments that request takes.
返回:

Response object

返回类型:

requests.Response

requests.patch(url, data=None, **kwargs)

Sends a PATCH request.

参数:
  • url -- URL for the new Request object.
  • data -- (optional) Dictionary (will be form-encoded), bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • json -- (optional) json data to send in the body of the Request.
  • **kwargs -- Optional arguments that request takes.
返回:

Response object

返回类型:

requests.Response

requests.delete(url, **kwargs)

Sends a DELETE request.

参数:
  • url -- URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs -- Optional arguments that request takes.
返回:

Response object

返回类型:

requests.Response

异常

exception requests.RequestException(*args, **kwargs)

There was an ambiguous exception that occurred while handling your request.

exception requests.ConnectionError(*args, **kwargs)

A Connection error occurred.

exception requests.HTTPError(*args, **kwargs)

An HTTP error occurred.

exception requests.URLRequired(*args, **kwargs)

A valid URL is required to make a request.

exception requests.TooManyRedirects(*args, **kwargs)

Too many redirects.

exception requests.ConnectTimeout(*args, **kwargs)

The request timed out while trying to connect to the remote server.

Requests that produced this error are safe to retry.

exception requests.ReadTimeout(*args, **kwargs)

The server did not send any data in the allotted amount of time.

exception requests.Timeout(*args, **kwargs)

The request timed out.

Catching this error will catch both ConnectTimeout and ReadTimeout errors.

请求会话

class requests.Session

A Requests session.

Provides cookie persistence, connection-pooling, and configuration.

Basic Usage:

>>> import requests
>>> s = requests.Session()
>>> s.get('http://httpbin.org/get')
<Response [200]>

Or as a context manager:

>>> with requests.Session() as s:
>>>     s.get('http://httpbin.org/get')
<Response [200]>

auth = None

Default Authentication tuple or object to attach to Request.

cert = None

SSL client certificate default, if String, path to ssl client cert file (.pem). If Tuple, ('cert', 'key') pair.

close()

Closes all adapters and as such the session

cookies = None

A CookieJar containing all currently outstanding cookies set on this session. By default it is a RequestsCookieJar, but may be any other cookielib.CookieJar compatible object.

delete(url, **kwargs)

Sends a DELETE request. Returns Response object.

参数:
  • url -- URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs -- Optional arguments that request takes.
返回类型:

requests.Response

get(url, **kwargs)

Sends a GET request. Returns Response object.

参数:
  • url -- URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs -- Optional arguments that request takes.
返回类型:

requests.Response

get_adapter(url)

Returns the appropriate connection adapter for the given URL.

返回类型:requests.adapters.BaseAdapter
get_redirect_target(resp)

Receives a Response. Returns a redirect URI or None

head(url, **kwargs)

Sends a HEAD request. Returns Response object.

参数:
  • url -- URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs -- Optional arguments that request takes.
返回类型:

requests.Response

headers = None

A case-insensitive dictionary of headers to be sent on each Request sent from this Session.

hooks = None

Event-handling hooks.

max_redirects = None

Maximum number of redirects allowed. If the request exceeds this limit, a TooManyRedirects exception is raised. This defaults to requests.models.DEFAULT_REDIRECT_LIMIT, which is 30.

merge_environment_settings(url, proxies, stream, verify, cert)

Check the environment and merge it with some settings.

返回类型:dict
mount(prefix, adapter)

Registers a connection adapter to a prefix.

Adapters are sorted in descending order by prefix length.

options(url, **kwargs)

Sends a OPTIONS request. Returns Response object.

参数:
  • url -- URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs -- Optional arguments that request takes.
返回类型:

requests.Response

params = None

Dictionary of querystring data to attach to each Request. The dictionary values may be lists for representing multivalued query parameters.

patch(url, data=None, **kwargs)

Sends a PATCH request. Returns Response object.

参数:
  • url -- URL for the new Request object.
  • data -- (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • **kwargs -- Optional arguments that request takes.
返回类型:

requests.Response

post(url, data=None, json=None, **kwargs)

Sends a POST request. Returns Response object.

参数:
  • url -- URL for the new Request object.
  • data -- (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • json -- (optional) json to send in the body of the Request.
  • **kwargs -- Optional arguments that request takes.
返回类型:

requests.Response

prepare_request(request)

Constructs a PreparedRequest for transmission and returns it. The PreparedRequest has settings merged from the Request instance and those of the Session.

参数:request -- Request instance to prepare with this session's settings.
返回类型:requests.PreparedRequest
proxies = None

Dictionary mapping protocol or protocol and host to the URL of the proxy (e.g. {'http': 'foo.bar:3128', 'http://host.name': 'foo.bar:4012'}) to be used on each Request.

put(url, data=None, **kwargs)

Sends a PUT request. Returns Response object.

参数:
  • url -- URL for the new Request object.
  • data -- (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • **kwargs -- Optional arguments that request takes.
返回类型:

requests.Response

rebuild_auth(prepared_request, response)

When being redirected we may want to strip authentication from the request to avoid leaking credentials. This method intelligently removes and reapplies authentication where possible to avoid credential loss.

rebuild_method(prepared_request, response)

When being redirected we may want to change the method of the request based on certain specs or browser behavior.

rebuild_proxies(prepared_request, proxies)

This method re-evaluates the proxy configuration by considering the environment variables. If we are redirected to a URL covered by NO_PROXY, we strip the proxy configuration. Otherwise, we set missing proxy keys for this URL (in case they were stripped by a previous redirect).

This method also replaces the Proxy-Authorization header where necessary.

返回类型:dict
request(method, url, params=None, data=None, headers=None, cookies=None, files=None, auth=None, timeout=None, allow_redirects=True, proxies=None, hooks=None, stream=None, verify=None, cert=None, json=None)

Constructs a Request, prepares it and sends it. Returns Response object.

参数:
  • method -- method for the new Request object.
  • url -- URL for the new Request object.
  • params -- (optional) Dictionary or bytes to be sent in the query string for the Request.
  • data -- (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • json -- (optional) json to send in the body of the Request.
  • headers -- (optional) Dictionary of HTTP Headers to send with the Request.
  • cookies -- (optional) Dict or CookieJar object to send with the Request.
  • files -- (optional) Dictionary of 'filename': file-like-objects for multipart encoding upload.
  • auth -- (optional) Auth tuple or callable to enable Basic/Digest/Custom HTTP Auth.
  • timeout (float or tuple) -- (optional) How long to wait for the server to send data before giving up, as a float, or a (connect timeout, read timeout) tuple.
  • allow_redirects (bool) -- (optional) Set to True by default.
  • proxies -- (optional) Dictionary mapping protocol or protocol and hostname to the URL of the proxy.
  • stream -- (optional) whether to immediately download the response content. Defaults to False.
  • verify -- (optional) Either a boolean, in which case it controls whether we verify the server's TLS certificate, or a string, in which case it must be a path to a CA bundle to use. Defaults to True.
  • cert -- (optional) if String, path to ssl client cert file (.pem). If Tuple, ('cert', 'key') pair.
返回类型:

requests.Response

resolve_redirects(resp, req, stream=False, timeout=None, verify=True, cert=None, proxies=None, yield_requests=False, **adapter_kwargs)

Receives a Response. Returns a generator of Responses or Requests.

send(request, **kwargs)

Send a given PreparedRequest.

返回类型:requests.Response
stream = None

Stream response content default.

trust_env = None

Trust environment settings for proxy configuration, default authentication and similar.

verify = None

SSL Verification default.

低级类

class requests.Request(method=None, url=None, headers=None, files=None, data=None, params=None, auth=None, cookies=None, hooks=None, json=None)

A user-created Request object.

Used to prepare a PreparedRequest, which is sent to the server.

参数:
  • method -- HTTP method to use.
  • url -- URL to send.
  • headers -- dictionary of headers to send.
  • files -- dictionary of {filename: fileobject} files to multipart upload.
  • data -- the body to attach to the request. If a dictionary is provided, form-encoding will take place.
  • json -- json for the body to attach to the request (if files or data is not specified).
  • params -- dictionary of URL parameters to append to the URL.
  • auth -- Auth handler or (user, pass) tuple.
  • cookies -- dictionary or CookieJar of cookies to attach to this request.
  • hooks -- dictionary of callback hooks, for internal usage.

Usage:

>>> import requests
>>> req = requests.Request('GET', 'http://httpbin.org/get')
>>> req.prepare()
<PreparedRequest [GET]>
deregister_hook(event, hook)

Deregister a previously registered hook. Returns True if the hook existed, False if not.

prepare()

Constructs a PreparedRequest for transmission and returns it.

register_hook(event, hook)

Properly register a hook.

class requests.Response

The Response object, which contains a server's response to an HTTP request.

apparent_encoding

The apparent encoding, provided by the chardet library.

close()

Releases the connection back to the pool. Once this method has been called the underlying raw object must not be accessed again.

Note: Should not normally need to be called explicitly.

content

Content of the response, in bytes.

cookies = None

A CookieJar of Cookies the server sent back.

elapsed = None

The amount of time elapsed between sending the request and the arrival of the response (as a timedelta). This property specifically measures the time taken between sending the first byte of the request and finishing parsing the headers. It is therefore unaffected by consuming the response content or the value of the stream keyword argument.

encoding = None

Encoding to decode with when accessing r.text.

headers = None

Case-insensitive Dictionary of Response Headers. For example, headers['content-encoding'] will return the value of a 'Content-Encoding' response header.

history = None

A list of Response objects from the history of the Request. Any redirect responses will end up here. The list is sorted from the oldest to the most recent request.

is_permanent_redirect

True if this Response one of the permanent versions of redirect.

is_redirect

True if this Response is a well-formed HTTP redirect that could have been processed automatically (by Session.resolve_redirects).

iter_content(chunk_size=1, decode_unicode=False)

Iterates over the response data. When stream=True is set on the request, this avoids reading the content at once into memory for large responses. The chunk size is the number of bytes it should read into memory. This is not necessarily the length of each item returned as decoding can take place.

chunk_size must be of type int or None. A value of None will function differently depending on the value of stream. stream=True will read data as it arrives in whatever size the chunks are received. If stream=False, data is returned as a single chunk.

If decode_unicode is True, content will be decoded using the best available encoding based on the response.

iter_lines(chunk_size=512, decode_unicode=None, delimiter=None)

Iterates over the response data, one line at a time. When stream=True is set on the request, this avoids reading the content at once into memory for large responses.

注解

This method is not reentrant safe.

json(**kwargs)

Returns the json-encoded content of a response, if any.

参数:**kwargs -- Optional arguments that json.loads takes.
引发:ValueError -- If the response body does not contain valid json.

Returns the parsed header links of the response, if any.

next

Returns a PreparedRequest for the next request in a redirect chain, if there is one.

ok

Returns True if status_code is less than 400.

This attribute checks if the status code of the response is between 400 and 600 to see if there was a client error or a server error. If the status code, is between 200 and 400, this will return True. This is not a check to see if the response code is 200 OK.

raise_for_status()

Raises stored HTTPError, if one occurred.

raw = None

File-like object representation of response (for advanced usage). Use of raw requires that stream=True be set on the request.

reason = None

Textual reason of responded HTTP Status, e.g. "Not Found" or "OK".

request = None

The PreparedRequest object to which this is a response.

status_code = None

Integer Code of responded HTTP Status, e.g. 404 or 200.

text

Content of the response, in unicode.

If Response.encoding is None, encoding will be guessed using chardet.

The encoding of the response content is determined based solely on HTTP headers, following RFC 2616 to the letter. If you can take advantage of non-HTTP knowledge to make a better guess at the encoding, you should set r.encoding appropriately before accessing this property.

url = None

Final URL location of Response.

更低级的类

class requests.PreparedRequest

The fully mutable PreparedRequest object, containing the exact bytes that will be sent to the server.

Generated from either a Request object or manually.

Usage:

>>> import requests
>>> req = requests.Request('GET', 'http://httpbin.org/get')
>>> r = req.prepare()
<PreparedRequest [GET]>

>>> s = requests.Session()
>>> s.send(r)
<Response [200]>
body = None

request body to send to the server.

deregister_hook(event, hook)

Deregister a previously registered hook. Returns True if the hook existed, False if not.

headers = None

dictionary of HTTP headers.

hooks = None

dictionary of callback hooks, for internal usage.

method = None

HTTP verb to send to the server.

path_url

Build the path URL to use.

prepare(method=None, url=None, headers=None, files=None, data=None, params=None, auth=None, cookies=None, hooks=None, json=None)

Prepares the entire request with the given parameters.

prepare_auth(auth, url='')

Prepares the given HTTP auth data.

prepare_body(data, files, json=None)

Prepares the given HTTP body data.

prepare_content_length(body)

Prepare Content-Length header based on request method and body

prepare_cookies(cookies)

Prepares the given HTTP cookie data.

This function eventually generates a Cookie header from the given cookies using cookielib. Due to cookielib's design, the header will not be regenerated if it already exists, meaning this function can only be called once for the life of the PreparedRequest object. Any subsequent calls to prepare_cookies will have no actual effect, unless the "Cookie" header is removed beforehand.

prepare_headers(headers)

Prepares the given HTTP headers.

prepare_hooks(hooks)

Prepares the given hooks.

prepare_method(method)

Prepares the given HTTP method.

prepare_url(url, params)

Prepares the given HTTP URL.

register_hook(event, hook)

Properly register a hook.

url = None

HTTP URL to send the request to.

class requests.adapters.BaseAdapter

The Base Transport Adapter

close()

Cleans up adapter specific items.

send(request, stream=False, timeout=None, verify=True, cert=None, proxies=None)

Sends PreparedRequest object. Returns Response object.

参数:
  • request -- The PreparedRequest being sent.
  • stream -- (optional) Whether to stream the request content.
  • timeout (float or tuple) -- (optional) How long to wait for the server to send data before giving up, as a float, or a (connect timeout, read timeout) tuple.
  • verify -- (optional) Either a boolean, in which case it controls whether we verify the server's TLS certificate, or a string, in which case it must be a path to a CA bundle to use
  • cert -- (optional) Any user-provided SSL certificate to be trusted.
  • proxies -- (optional) The proxies dictionary to apply to the request.
class requests.adapters.HTTPAdapter(pool_connections=10, pool_maxsize=10, max_retries=0, pool_block=False)

The built-in HTTP Adapter for urllib3.

Provides a general-case interface for Requests sessions to contact HTTP and HTTPS urls by implementing the Transport Adapter interface. This class will usually be created by the Session class under the covers.

参数:
  • pool_connections -- The number of urllib3 connection pools to cache.
  • pool_maxsize -- The maximum number of connections to save in the pool.
  • max_retries -- The maximum number of retries each connection should attempt. Note, this applies only to failed DNS lookups, socket connections and connection timeouts, never to requests where data has made it to the server. By default, Requests does not retry failed connections. If you need granular control over the conditions under which we retry a request, import urllib3's Retry class and pass that instead.
  • pool_block -- Whether the connection pool should block for connections.

Usage:

>>> import requests
>>> s = requests.Session()
>>> a = requests.adapters.HTTPAdapter(max_retries=3)
>>> s.mount('http://', a)
add_headers(request, **kwargs)

Add any headers needed by the connection. As of v2.0 this does nothing by default, but is left for overriding by users that subclass the HTTPAdapter.

This should not be called from user code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the HTTPAdapter.

参数:
  • request -- The PreparedRequest to add headers to.
  • kwargs -- The keyword arguments from the call to send().
build_response(req, resp)>

Builds a Response object from a urllib3 response. This should not be called from user code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the HTTPAdapter

参数:
  • req -- The PreparedRequest used to generate the response.
  • resp -- The urllib3 response object.
返回类型:

requests.Response

cert_verify(conn, url, verify, cert)

Verify a SSL certificate. This method should not be called from user code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the HTTPAdapter.

参数:
  • conn -- The urllib3 connection object associated with the cert.
  • url -- The requested URL.
  • verify -- Either a boolean, in which case it controls whether we verify the server's TLS certificate, or a string, in which case it must be a path to a CA bundle to use
  • cert -- The SSL certificate to verify.
close()

Disposes of any internal state.

Currently, this closes the PoolManager and any active ProxyManager, which closes any pooled connections.

get_connection(url, proxies=None)

Returns a urllib3 connection for the given URL. This should not be called from user code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the HTTPAdapter.

参数:
  • url -- The URL to connect to.
  • proxies -- (optional) A Requests-style dictionary of proxies used on this request.
返回类型:

urllib3.ConnectionPool

init_poolmanager(connections, maxsize, block=False, **pool_kwargs)

Initializes a urllib3 PoolManager.

This method should not be called from user code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the HTTPAdapter.

参数:
  • connections -- The number of urllib3 connection pools to cache.
  • maxsize -- The maximum number of connections to save in the pool.
  • block -- Block when no free connections are available.
  • pool_kwargs -- Extra keyword arguments used to initialize the Pool Manager.
proxy_headers(proxy)

Returns a dictionary of the headers to add to any request sent through a proxy. This works with urllib3 magic to ensure that they are correctly sent to the proxy, rather than in a tunnelled request if CONNECT is being used.

This should not be called from user code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the HTTPAdapter.

参数:proxies -- The url of the proxy being used for this request.
返回类型:dict
proxy_manager_for(proxy, **proxy_kwargs)

Return urllib3 ProxyManager for the given proxy.

This method should not be called from user code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the HTTPAdapter.

参数:
  • proxy -- The proxy to return a urllib3 ProxyManager for.
  • proxy_kwargs -- Extra keyword arguments used to configure the Proxy Manager.
返回:

ProxyManager

返回类型:

urllib3.ProxyManager

request_url(request, proxies)

Obtain the url to use when making the final request.

If the message is being sent through a HTTP proxy, the full URL has to be used. Otherwise, we should only use the path portion of the URL.

This should not be called from user code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the HTTPAdapter.

参数:
  • request -- The PreparedRequest being sent.
  • proxies -- A dictionary of schemes or schemes and hosts to proxy URLs.
返回类型:

str

send(request, stream=False, timeout=None, verify=True, cert=None, proxies=None)

Sends PreparedRequest object. Returns Response object.

参数:
  • request -- The PreparedRequest being sent.
  • stream -- (optional) Whether to stream the request content.
  • timeout (float or tuple or urllib3 Timeout object) -- (optional) How long to wait for the server to send data before giving up, as a float, or a (connect timeout, read timeout) tuple.
  • verify -- (optional) Either a boolean, in which case it controls whether we verify the server's TLS certificate, or a string, in which case it must be a path to a CA bundle to use
  • cert -- (optional) Any user-provided SSL certificate to be trusted.
  • proxies -- (optional) The proxies dictionary to apply to the request.
返回类型:

requests.Response

身份验证

class requests.auth.AuthBase

Base class that all auth implementations derive from

class requests.auth.HTTPBasicAuth(username, password)

Attaches HTTP Basic Authentication to the given Request object.

class requests.auth.HTTPProxyAuth(username, password)

Attaches HTTP Proxy Authentication to a given Request object.

class requests.auth.HTTPDigestAuth(username, password)

Attaches HTTP Digest Authentication to the given Request object.

编码

requests.utils.get_encodings_from_content(content)

Returns encodings from given content string.

参数:content -- bytestring to extract encodings from.
requests.utils.get_encoding_from_headers(headers)

Returns encodings from given HTTP Header Dict.

参数:headers -- dictionary to extract encoding from.
返回类型:str
requests.utils.get_unicode_from_response(r)

Returns the requested content back in unicode.

参数:r -- Response object to get unicode content from.

Tried:

  1. charset from content-type
  2. fall back and replace all unicode characters
返回类型:str

状态码查询

requests.codes
>>> requests.codes['temporary_redirect']
307

>>> requests.codes.teapot
418

>>> requests.codes['\o/']
200

class requests.Request(method=None, url=None, headers=None, files=None, data=None, params=None, auth=None, cookies=None, hooks=None, json=None)

A user-created Request object.

Used to prepare a PreparedRequest, which is sent to the server.

参数:
  • method -- HTTP method to use.
  • url -- URL to send.
  • headers -- dictionary of headers to send.
  • files -- dictionary of {filename: fileobject} files to multipart upload.
  • data -- the body to attach to the request. If a dictionary is provided, form-encoding will take place.
  • json -- json for the body to attach to the request (if files or data is not specified).
  • params -- dictionary of URL parameters to append to the URL.
  • auth -- Auth handler or (user, pass) tuple.
  • cookies -- dictionary or CookieJar of cookies to attach to this request.
  • hooks -- dictionary of callback hooks, for internal usage.

Usage:

>>> import requests
>>> req = requests.Request('GET', 'http://httpbin.org/get')
>>> req.prepare()
<PreparedRequest [GET]>
deregister_hook(event, hook)

Deregister a previously registered hook. Returns True if the hook existed, False if not.

prepare()

Constructs a PreparedRequest for transmission and returns it.

register_hook(event, hook)

Properly register a hook.

class requests.Response

The Response object, which contains a server's response to an HTTP request.

apparent_encoding

The apparent encoding, provided by the chardet library.

close()

Releases the connection back to the pool. Once this method has been called the underlying raw object must not be accessed again.

Note: Should not normally need to be called explicitly.

content

Content of the response, in bytes.

cookies = None

A CookieJar of Cookies the server sent back.

elapsed = None

The amount of time elapsed between sending the request and the arrival of the response (as a timedelta). This property specifically measures the time taken between sending the first byte of the request and finishing parsing the headers. It is therefore unaffected by consuming the response content or the value of the stream keyword argument.

encoding = None

Encoding to decode with when accessing r.text.

headers = None

Case-insensitive Dictionary of Response Headers. For example, headers['content-encoding'] will return the value of a 'Content-Encoding' response header.

history = None

A list of Response objects from the history of the Request. Any redirect responses will end up here. The list is sorted from the oldest to the most recent request.

is_permanent_redirect

True if this Response one of the permanent versions of redirect.

is_redirect

True if this Response is a well-formed HTTP redirect that could have been processed automatically (by Session.resolve_redirects).

iter_content(chunk_size=1, decode_unicode=False)

Iterates over the response data. When stream=True is set on the request, this avoids reading the content at once into memory for large responses. The chunk size is the number of bytes it should read into memory. This is not necessarily the length of each item returned as decoding can take place.

chunk_size must be of type int or None. A value of None will function differently depending on the value of stream. stream=True will read data as it arrives in whatever size the chunks are received. If stream=False, data is returned as a single chunk.

If decode_unicode is True, content will be decoded using the best available encoding based on the response.

iter_lines(chunk_size=512, decode_unicode=None, delimiter=None)

Iterates over the response data, one line at a time. When stream=True is set on the request, this avoids reading the content at once into memory for large responses.

注解

This method is not reentrant safe.

json(**kwargs)

Returns the json-encoded content of a response, if any.

参数:**kwargs -- Optional arguments that json.loads takes.
引发:ValueError -- If the response body does not contain valid json.
links

Returns the parsed header links of the response, if any.

next

Returns a PreparedRequest for the next request in a redirect chain, if there is one.

ok

Returns True if status_code is less than 400.

This attribute checks if the status code of the response is between 400 and 600 to see if there was a client error or a server error. If the status code, is between 200 and 400, this will return True. This is not a check to see if the response code is 200 OK.

raise_for_status()

Raises stored HTTPError, if one occurred.

raw = None

File-like object representation of response (for advanced usage). Use of raw requires that stream=True be set on the request.

reason = None

Textual reason of responded HTTP Status, e.g. "Not Found" or "OK".

request = None

The PreparedRequest object to which this is a response.

status_code = None

Integer Code of responded HTTP Status, e.g. 404 or 200.

text

Content of the response, in unicode.

If Response.encoding is None, encoding will be guessed using chardet.

The encoding of the response content is determined based solely on HTTP headers, following RFC 2616 to the letter. If you can take advantage of non-HTTP knowledge to make a better guess at the encoding, you should set r.encoding appropriately before accessing this property.

url = None

Final URL location of Response.

迁移到 1.x

本节详细介绍 0.x 和 1.x 的主要区别,减少升级带来的一些不便。

API 变化

  • Response.json 现在是可调用的并且不再是响应体的属性。

    import requests
    r = requests.get('https://github.com/timeline.json')
    r.json()   # 如果 JSON 解码失败,该调用会引发异常。
    
  • Session API 也发生了变化. Sessions 对象不再需要参数了。 Session 现在是大写的了,但为了向后兼容,它仍然能被小写的 session 实例化。

    s = requests.Session()    # 过去会话需要接收参数
    s.auth = auth
    s.headers.update(headers)
    r = s.get('http://httpbin.org/headers')
    

  • 除了'response',所有的请求挂钩已被移除。

  • 认证助手已经被分解成单独的模块了. 参见 requests-oauthlib and requests-kerberos.

  • 流请求的参数已从 prefetch 改变到 stream ,并且逻辑也被颠倒。除此之外, stream 现在对于原始响应读取也是必需的。

    # 在 0.x 中,传入 prefetch=False 会达到同样的结果
    r = requests.get('https://github.com/timeline.json', stream=True)
    for chunk in r.iter_content(8192):
        ...
    
  • requests 方法的 config 参数已全部删除。 现在配置这些选项都在 Session ,比如 keep-alive 和最大数目的重定向。 详细程度选项应当由配置日志来处理。

    import requests
    import logging
    
    # 启用调试于 http.client 级别 (requests->urllib3->http.client)
    # 你将能看到 REQUEST,包括 HEADERS 和 DATA,以及包含 HEADERS 但不包含 DATA 的 RESPONSE。
    # 唯一缺少的是 response.body,它不会被 log 记录。
    try: # for Python 3
        from http.client import HTTPConnection
    except ImportError:
        from httplib import HTTPConnection
    HTTPConnection.debuglevel = 1
    
    logging.basicConfig() # 初始化 logging,否则不会看到任何 requests 的输出。
    logging.getLogger().setLevel(logging.DEBUG)
    requests_log = logging.getLogger("requests.packages.urllib3")
    requests_log.setLevel(logging.DEBUG)
    requests_log.propagate = True
    
    requests.get('http://httpbin.org/headers')
    

许可

有一个关键的与 API 无关的区别是开放许可从 ISC 许可 变更到 Apache 2.0 许可. Apache 2.0 license 确保了对于 Requests 的贡献也被涵盖在 Apache 2.0 许可内.

迁移到 2.x

和 1.0 发布版相比,破坏向后兼容的更改比较少。不过在这个主发布版本中,依然还有一些应该注意的问题。

更多关于变更的细节,包括 API,以及相关的 GitHub Issue 和部分 bug 修复,请参阅 Cory blog 中的相关主题。

API 变化

  • Requests 处理异常的行为有部分更改。 RequestException 现在是 IOError 的子类,而非 RuntimeError 的子类,新的归类更为合理。此外,无效的 URL 转义序列现在会引发 RequestException 的一个子类,而非一个 ValueError

    requests.get('http://%zz/')   # raises requests.exceptions.InvalidURL
    

    最后, 错误分块导致的 httplib.IncompleteRead 异常现在变成了 ChunkedEncodingError

  • 代理 API 略有改动,现在需要提供代理 URL 的 scheme。

    proxies = {
      "http": "10.10.1.10:3128",    # 需使用 http://10.10.1.10:3128
    }
    
    # requests 1.x 中有效, requests 2.x 中会引发 requests.exceptions.MissingSchema
    
    requests.get("http://example.org", proxies=proxies)
    

行为变化

  • headers 字典中的 key 现在都是原生字符串,在所有版本的 Python 中都是如此。也就是说,Python 2 中是 bytestring,Python 3 中是 unicode。 如果 key 不是原声字符串(Python 2 中 unicode,或 Python 3 中 bytestring) 它们会被以 UTF-8 编码转成原生字符串。
  • headers 字典中的 value 应该都是字符串。在 1.0 版之前该项目就是要求这样做的,只不过最近(v2.11.0之后)这条变成了强制条款。建议在可能的情况下,避免让 header 值使用 unicode 编码。